This is the upper part of the vocal tract, and it travels from the nose to the throat. It runs perpendicular to the surface of the vocal folds that encase the vocal folds. As can be seen in the table, you can only see it at the base (middle) of the vocal fold.
There are two laryngeal muscles, which work to separate the sounds that enter the larynx from the sounds that leave it. The first muscle is the tracheohyoid muscle, meaning it acts in the larynx to separate sounds when they enter the larynx. This muscle also acts to separate sounds when they leave the larynx (called the diaphragm muscle).
The second laryngeal muscle, the pharyngeal reflex, works in the lower portion of the vocal folds and separates the sounds that enter the larynx (called the laryngopharyngeal reflex) from the sounds that leave it (called the trachealpharyngeal reflex).
This chart explains the laryngopharyngeal reflex in simplified terms.
How does it affect pronunciation?
The laryngopharyngeal reflex is very important during vocal tract injuries. It pulls air from the larynx up to the back of the throat to help repair a leak in the trachea duct.
This creates a vacuum for air to enter the lungs. The air travels along the blood vessels lining the lungs to the lungs as it travels up through the nasal passages toward the sinuses. The resulting pressure inside the lungs changes the pattern of the sound waves and their frequencies.
Because of the laryngopharyngeal reflex, most people are able to pronounce “hoo” as “hyah” or “hee”. But when the larynx is damaged, speech becomes difficult, and people may have difficulty forming any sound that may belong on a syllable.
What causes it?
The laryngeal reflex is not a simple muscle reflex. It differs from the trachealpharyngeal reflex in that it consists of two muscles which act independently of each other. Both tend to work in the same muscles to separate sounds.
If you hurt your larynx, some of your air travels down through your larynx and some of it travels to the back of your throat. The amount of the air flowing down is dependent on several factors. Among those factors is
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